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A lump in the abdomen is a soft bulge of tissue or a small area of swelling in the belly.
See also: Abdominal mass
Abdominal hernia; Hernia - abdominal; Abdominal wall defects; Lump in the abdominal wall; Abdominal wall mass
Most often, a lump in the abdomen is caused by a hernia. An abdominal hernia occurs when there is an area where the muscles are weak. This allows the internal organs to bulge through the abdominal wall. A hernia may not appear until after you strain, lift something heavy, or have a long period of coughing.
There are several types of hernias, based on where they occur:
Other causes of a lump in the abdominal wall include:
Call your doctor if you have a lump in your abdomen that becomes larger, changes color, or is painful.
If you have a hernia, call your doctor if you have:
The blood supply to the organs that stick out through the hernia may be lost (strangulated hernia). This is very rare, but it is a medical emergency.
The doctor will examine you and ask questions about your medical history and symptoms, such as:
During the physical examination, you may be asked to cough or strain.
Surgery may be needed to correct incisional hernias or umbilical hernias that do not go away by the time a child approaches school age. The surgery may be done through a large surgical cut, or through a smaller cut into which the surgeon inserts a camera and other instruments.
Emergency surgery is needed in the case of a strangulated hernia.
Malangoni MA, Rosen MJ. Hernias. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 44.
Turnage RH, Richardson KA, Li BD, McDonald JC. Abdominal wall, umbilicus, peritoneum, mesenteries, omentum, and retroperitoneum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 18th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 43.