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Immunization (vaccination) is a way to improve your immune system and prevent serious, life-threatening diseases.
See also: Babies and shots
HOW IMMUNIZATIONS WORK
Immunizations teach your body how to defend itself when germs such as viruses or bacteria invade it.
Four different types of vaccines are currently available:
WHY WE NEED IMMUNIZATIONS
Newborns, babies, and toddlers are constantly being exposed to germs from their parents, other adults, brothers and sisters, people in stores, and other children in child care. With travel easier than ever, you and your baby can be exposed to diseases from other countries without you knowing it.
For a few weeks after they are born, babies will have some protection, which was passed from their mother through the placenta before birth. After a short period of time, this natural protection goes away.
Immunizations help protect infants, children, and adults against many infections that used to be much more common.
Many of these infections can cause serious or life-threatening illnesses, and may lead to lifelong disabilities. Because of immunizations, all of these illnesses are now rare.
SAFETY OF IMMUNIZATIONS
Many parents are worried that some vaccines are not safe and may harm their baby or young child. They may ask their doctor or nurse to wait, or even refuse to have the vaccine. However, it is important to also think about the risks of not having the vaccination.
Some people believe that vaccines cause autism or ADHD. They are worried that a small amount of mercury (called thimerosal) that is used as a preservative in multidose vaccines will cause these problems. Multidose means that many doses of vaccine come in one bottle.
However, studies have NOT shown this risk to be true.
If you are still worried about the risk of autism or ADHD, ask your doctor or nurse about single-dose forms of the vaccine. All of the routine childhood vaccines are available in single-dose forms, and they do not contain added mercury.
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website provides further information.
Other risks you may have heard about include:
Like many medications, there is always the chance that an immunization can cause side effects. However, deciding not to immunize yourself or a child puts both of you at risk for serious infections. The potential benefits from receiving vaccines far outweigh the potential risks.
The recommended immunization schedule is updated at least every 12 months by organizations such as the American Academy of Pediatrics. Talk to your primary care provider about specific immunizations for you or your child. The current recommendations are available on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) website. At every doctor visit, ask about the next recommended immunizations.
Immunizations are not only for children. Each year the CDC posts recommended adult immunizations on their website. Go there to learn about tetanus booster shots, the flu shot, hepatitis A and B vaccines, the pneumococcal vaccine, MMR, and immunizations for chickenpox and meningitis.
The CDC website (www.cdc.gov) gives travelers detailed information on immunizations and other precautions. Many immunizations should be obtained at least a month before travel.
Remember to take your immunization records with you when you travel internationally. Some countries require this documentation.
Common immunizations include:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended adult immunization schedule--United States, 2012. MMWR 2012;61(4).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years--United States, 2012, MMWR 2012;61(05):1-4.